According to the aufbau principle the 4s orbital is lower in energy than the 3d orbital hence, it is filled first. However, when we consider a transition metal complex this does not apply; the 3d ...
The 3d orbitals at scandium have a lower energy than the 4s, and so the next electron will go into a 3d orbital. The structure is [Ar] 3d 1. Making Sc + You might expect the next electron to go into a lower energy 3d orbital as well, to give [Ar] 3d 2. But it doesn't. You have something else to think about here as well.
1. Represent each orbital by a circle (or square or line). 1. Label each group of orbital in a sublevel with the energy level and sublevel. 2. Represent electrons within each orbital by drawing in an arrow for EACH electron (following Aufbau, Pauli, and Hund’s rules) Orbital Notation Diagrams s-sublevel p-sublevel 1s 3p
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A. An orbital is composed of some integral number of orbits. B. An orbit is a Why is the difference between the n = 1 and n = 2 levels so much greater than the energy For a many-electron atom, can we predict unambiguously whether the 4s orbital is lower or higher in energy than the 3d orbitals?
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However, the 4s orbital is more penetrating than the 3d orbital; this can be seen by comparing the radial distribution functions of the two orbitals Following the Aufbau Principle and the n+l rule, the 4s orbital should fill before the 3d orbital. So why is 3d lower in energy? In short, the Aufbau Principle...